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MASKULIN (Masker Anti Kuman dan Polusi Akibat Lalu-lintas Kendaraan Bermotor)
October 26th, 2013 by hardi santosa

Peningkatan urbanisasi, motorisasi dan industrialisasi di Indonesia telah memperburuk polusi udara. Pertambahan jumlah kendaraan pada satu dekade yang sangat pesat mengakibatkan bertambah banyak zat polutan. Data kementerian Lingkungan Hidup menyebutkan bahwa polusi udara dari kendaraan bermotor bensin menyumbang 70 persen CO, 60 persen HC dan 60 persen NOx. Dari sisi kesehatan, pencemaran udara dapat berakibat pada terganggunga kesehatan dan pertumbuhan anak-anak, misalnya anemia. Hal yang paling dikhawatirkan, anak bisa mengalami gangguan kemampuan berpikir, daya tangkap lambat, dan tingkat IQ rendah. Dalam pertumbuhan fisik akan berdampak pada gangguan seperti keterlambatan pertumbuhan dan gangguan pendengaran. Pada orang dewasa, akan mempengaruhi sistem reproduksi atau kesuburan. Zat polutan dapat mengurangi jumlah dan fungsi sperma sehingga menyebabkan kemandulan, dan juga mengganggu fungsi jantung, ginjal, dan menyebabkan penyakit stroke serta kanker.Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) Kementerian Kesehatan 2007 menyebutkan bahwa kondisi udara yang tidak bersih dan cuaca yang berubah-ubah merupakan salah satu pemicu infeksi saluran pernapasan (ISPA) selain alergi dan asma. Penduduk Indonesia dan Jakarta yang mengidap ISPA diperkirakan sekitar 25,50 persen. Dalam tiga tahun belakang, ISPA menempati peringkat pertama dari 10 penyakit yang paling banyak diderita masyarakat.Pola penyebaran ISPA yang utama ialah melalui droplet yang keluar dari rongga hidung atau mulut saat penderita batuk atau bersin. Udara dengan jarak yang dekat dengan penderita juga dapat mentransmisikan penyakit ini. Karena itu diperlukan masker sebagai protector untuk melindungi tubuh dari polusi udara serta sebagai pencegahan penularan penyakit melalui hidung dan mulut. Masker yang sekarang ada masih kurang efektif. Maskulin merupakan masker yang dibuat dengan kitosan dan arang aktif. Kitosan didapatkan dari proses N-deasetilasi kitin cangkang crustaceae sedangkan arang aktif dari tempurung kelapa yang didapatkan melalui pemanasan pada suhu tinggi. Kitosan dan arang aktif dapat berfungsi sebagai adsorben untuk menyaring polusi udara dan daya antibakteri kitosan akan membunuh bakteri sehingga mencegah penularan penyakit.
Penulis : Hardi santosa, Ifa najiyati, Fitri Rizki Amalia dan Alinda Fitrotun Nisa


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